In-spite of the free education enshrined in the Nigerian Constitution and UBE Act this has not been so. According to United National Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) all developing countries should allocate 26% of their annual budget to education. Nigeria and the states to a large extent have fallen short of this expectation. Poor funding of education sector is largely responsible for the myriads of problems.
Although schools implement PTA structure which currently is not backed by law, there has been increasing need to involve the communities in the management and governance issues. With the limitations found with the PTA structure, the Nigerian government came up with a policy that mandates all public primary and secondary schools to establish School Based Management Committees (SBMCs) but this is slow to implement as only schools that are benefiting from NGO interventions can boast of functional SBMCs.
Data have shown that there are inadequate qualified teachers in Nigeria especially at primary and secondary school level even as the ratio of female to male teachers and the standard teacher pupil ratio of 1:25 are yet to be met. Furthermore, data has shown that only about 60% of Nigerian children of school age are enrolled in schools while dropout figures are getting worrisome too. This could be as a result of poor infrastructure, poverty, culture, religion, user fees, among other things.
Statistics indicate glaring imbalances against girls in enrolment, attendance and completion rates in all levels of education in Nigeria, particularly in the northern parts of the country, due to a variety of socio-cultural and religious factors. It means that the rights of millions of children, especially girls, are violated. United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF) estimates that over 12 million school age children are out of school majority of them girls.